There exist a multiplicity of ways of engaging in national it-strategies, e-learning strategies and digital strategies. Just by looking at the names chosen for the various strategies, it becomes apparent that the approaches enacted by countries and governments are different. E.g. the current Danish “National Strategy of ICT-supported learning” is focusing on e-learning. Other strategies may be focusing on it-infrastructure.
Many countries work with several strategies launched somewhat independently by different ministries e.g. Ministry of Education, Ministry of Science etc. New Zealand’s Strategy provides an example of an overall national strategy that seems to capture both a bottom-up approach as well as being an attempt to create one coherent national strategy. The Digital Strategy is launched as a collaborative continuous effort and hence the strategy is a living document (see: http://www.digitalstrategy.govt.nz/)